Back Avesta - Bundahisn



In the name of the creator Aramazda.


The Zand-akas, the Zand-knowing or tradition-informed, which is first about Aramazda's original creation and the antagonism of the evil spirit, and afterwards about the nature of the creatures from the original creation till the end, which is the future existence .

2. As revealed by the religion of the Mazdayasnians, so it is declared that Aramazda is supreme in omniscience and goodness, and unrivaled in splendor; the region of light is the place of Aramazda, which they call 'endless light,' and the omniscience and goodness of the unrivaled Aramazda is what they call 'revelation.' 3. Revelation is the explanation of both spirits together; one is he who is independent of unlimited time, because Aramazda and the region, religion, and time of Aramazda were and are and ever will be; while Angraman in darkness, with backward understanding and desire for destruction, was in the abyss, and it is he who will not be; and the place of that destruction, and also of that darkness, is what they call the 'endlessly dark.' 4. And between them was empty space, that is, what they call 'air,' in which is now their meeting.

5. Both are limited and unlimited spirits, for the supreme is that which they call endless light, and the abyss that which is endlessly dark, so that between them is a void, and one is not connected with the other; and, again, both spirits are limited as to their own selves. 6. And, secondly, on account of the omniscience of Aramazda, both things are in the creation of Aramazda, the finite and the infinite; for this they know is that which is in the covenant of both spirits. 7. And, again, the complete sovereignty of the creatures of Aramazda is in the future existence, and that also is unlimited for ever and everlasting, and the creatures of Angraman will perish at the time when the future existence occurs, and that also is eternity.

8.Aramazda, through omniscience, knew that Angraman exists, and whatever he schemes he infuses with malice and greediness till the end; and because He accomplishes the end by many means, He also produced spiritually the creatures which were necessary for those means, and they remained three thousand years in a spiritual state, so that they were unthinking and unmoving, with intangible bodies.

9.The evil spirit, on account of backward knowledge, was not aware of the existence of Aramazda; and, afterwards, he arose from the abyss, and came in unto the light which he saw. 10. Desirous of destroying, and because of his malicious nature, he rushed in to destroy that light of Aramazda unassailed by fiends, and he saw its bravery and glory were greater than his own; so he fled back to the gloomy darkness, and formed many demons and fiends; and the creatures of the destroyer arose for violence.

11. Aramazda, by whom the creatures of the evil spirit were seen, creatures terrible, corrupt, and bad, also considered them not commendable . 12. Afterwards, the evil spirit saw the creatures of Aramazda; there appeared many creatures of delight , inquiring creatures, and they seemed to him commendable, and he commended the creatures and creation of Aramazda.

13. Then Aramazda, with a knowledge of which way the end of the matter would be, went to meet the evil spirit, and proposed peace to him, and spoke thus: 'Evil spirit! bring assistance unto my creatures, and offer praise! so that, in reward for it, ye (you and your creatures) may become immortal and undecaying, hungerless and thirstless.'

14.And the evil spirit shouted thus: 'I will not depart, I will not provide assistance for thy creatures, I will not offer praise among thy creatures, and I am not of the same opinion with thee as to good things. I will destroy thy creatures for ever and everlasting; moreover, I will force all thy creatures into disaffection to thee and affection for myself.' 15. And the explanation thereof is this, that the evil spirit reflected in this manner, that Aramazda was helpless as regarded him, therefore He proffers peace; and he did not agree, but bore on even into conflict with Him.

16.And Aramazda spoke thus: 'You are not omniscient and almighty, O evil spirit! so that it is not possible for thee to destroy me, and it is not possible for thee to force my creatures so that they will not return to my possession.'

17.Then Aramazda, through omniscience, knew that: If I do not grant a period of contest, then it will be possible for him to act so that he may be able to cause the seduction of my creatures to himself. As even now there are many of the intermixture of mankind who practice wrong more than right. 18. And Aramazda spoke to the evil spirit thus: 'Appoint a period! so that the intermingling of the conflict may be for nine thousand years. For he knew that by appointing this period the evil spirit would be undone.

19.Then the evil spirit, unobservant and through ignorance, was content with that agreement; just like two men quarreling together, who propose a time thus: Let us appoint such-and-such a day for a fight.

20.Aramazda also knew this, through omniscience, that within these nine thousand years, for three thousand years everything proceeds by the will of Aramazda, three thousand years there is an intermingling of the wills of Aramazda and Angraman, and the last three thousand years the evil spirit is disabled, and they keep the adversary away from the creatures.

21.Afterwards, Aramazda recited the Ahunwar thus: Yatha ahu vairyo ('as a heavenly lord is to be chosen'), &c. once, and uttered the twenty-one words; He also exhibited to the evil spirit His own triumph in the end, and the impotence of the evil spirit, the annihilation of the demons, and the resurrection and undisturbed future existence of the creatures for ever and everlasting. 22. And the evil spirit, who perceived his own impotence and the annihilation of the demons, became confounded, and fell back to the gloomy darkness; even so as is declared in revelation, that, when one of its (the Ahunwar's) three parts was uttered, the evil spirit contracted his body through fear, and when two parts of it were uttered he fell upon his knees, and when all of it was uttered he became confounded and impotent as to the harm he caused the creatures of Aramazda, and he remained three thousand years in confusion.

23.Aramazda created his creatures in the confusion of Angraman; first he produced Vohumanah ('good thought'), by whom the progress of the creatures of Aramazda was advanced.

24.The evil spirit first created Mitokht ('falsehood'), and then Akamanah ('evil thought').

25.The first of Aramazda's creatures of the world was the sky, and his good thought (Vohumanah), by good procedure, produced the light of the world, along with which was the good religion of the Mazdayasnians; this was because the renovation (Frashegird) which happens to the creatures was known to him! 26. Afterwards arose Artavy, and then Ksatravy, and then Spentarmity, and then Harverty, and then Amorty.

27. From the dark world of Angraman were Akoman and Andar, and then Sovar, and then Nakahed, and then Tairev and Zairik.

28. Of Aramazda's creatures of the world, the first was the sky; the second, water; the third, earth; the fourth, plants; the fifth, animals; the sixth, mankind.