Utterances (Part 1)
Utterances (Part 2)
Mehr, Mah Bahman Yazdegardi Era 1375 (June
Khratu (Skt: Kratu)
(Human rational thinking)
preamble in ‘The Prophet’s utterances’ Part (1) I had discussed both the
closeness as well as some noteworthy differences in the usage of the
word ‘səraōša’ (uttered by Zarathushtra) with the word ‘śrōša’, used by
the composers of the early part of the Ŗg Vēdā and later Sanskrit texts.
Here, I present another Gāthic word ‘Khratu’ and its parallel ‘Kratu’
in the Ŗg Vēdā. The purpose of this rather time-consuming undertaking,
apart from pointing towards the closeness of the Vēdic Āryānic and the
Gāthic Āiryānic peoples, is to provide a ready reference to researchers
of this interesting subject matter].
Again, I have adopted
the following transcription (after Kanga
6. & Taraporewala
9) as permitted by my software, while
the encoding of the ITRANS convention hoping to make the reading
for non-academic purposes generally easier: -
as in fun; ā as in far; ã (nasal sound ãn)
as in ‘āvãn’; ə as in fed, ē as in fade;
i as in fill; ī as in feel; o as in
for; ō as in fore; u as in full; ū
as in fool. The nasal sounds are ãn as in āvãn;
ən as in the French ‘trés biən’, ĩn
as in Ahĩnsā (also pronounced ‘ĩm’ as in
Sanskrit Ahĩmsā and as also in Avestan and Gathic
languages) and ũn as in Humayũn. The
pronunciation of some consonants (as permitted by my software)
are ‘ś’ for ‘sh’, ‘š’ for ‘ss’, ‘ŗ’
for ‘ri’, ñ for ‘ni’, ‘ž’ for ‘zh’.
The pronunciation of the
vowel sounds ‘ə’ as in fed and ‘ən’ as in
the French ‘trés biən’ is unique to the Gāthic/Avestan
languages. These vowel sounds ‘ə’ and ‘ən’ are
not found in the alphabets of Sanskrit and (Shuddha) Gujarāti
(and possibly also in other Indic group of Prakrit languages) where
all ‘e’ vowel sounds are pronounced as ē as in fade. Also, it is
interesting that Vedic texts appear to be conspicuous by the absence of
a double negative although double negatives do occur later in
Thus, in the
Gujarāti version of the book by Tārāporewālā, Irach J. S ‘Ashō
Zarathushtra nā Gāthā
8. all the ‘e’s are shown with the typical Gujarāti
alphabetic ‘pã(n)khru(n)’ (pronounced as ‘ē’ as in
fade). In the original Gujarāti version of his Khōrdeh
Avestā Ervad Kāvasji Edulji Kāngā
5., however, uses a crescent above the ‘e’s to create the
sound ə as in fed, and ən as in the French ‘trés
biən’ and the typical Gujarāti alphabetic ‘pā(n)khru(n)’
to create the sound ē as in fade. In the English
version of his book Taraporewala, Irach J. S.9.
uses the accepted symbols for ə as in fed, ē as
in fade and ən as in the French ‘trés biən’.
-conferred human rational frame of mind - KHRATU Human
(A human realization of
Cosmic Good Mind - the divine Vōhu Mana)
by inducing a dynamic involvement in life matters: -
rational thinking (Khratu), meaningful experience (Hu-Shyaothna)
& amicable speech (Hu-Vacha)
human spirit of consciousness - CHISTI
Ahurā Mazdā ’s
Cosmic Spirit - the divine Spənishta Mainyu)
Through complex interactions (precepts, thoughts and feelings) in our
superior human brain
it spontaneously translates into human INTENTION constantly
the integration of the two – Khratu and Chisti
is to obtain a mental state of CLEAR INSIGHT - HUDĀNUSH
of SELF-KNOWLEDGE - KHVAĒTU
a joyous feeling of understanding, freedom of thought and
Zarathushtra taught that the power of Chisti
very personal earthly human Spirit
Ahurā Mazdā’s attribute of Spənta Mainyu), through its own spontaneity,
translates into human Intention, the motivating, driving force of all
human conduct in real life. (The impulses arise from the
subcortical centres of the human brain). He pointed out that a
threat, while instructing, indicates poor intention on the part of the
‘ratu’ - the instructor while persuasion points towards a good
intention. Indeed, the Prophet named his youngest daughter,
Pōuru-Chista. (one abounding in the human Spirit)
preached that Rational Thought /Intellect– Khratu (Ahurā
Mazdā’s attribute of the Good Mind – Vōhu Manō) is his special
gift to humans (amongst all other living creatures on earth), so that we
may remain his collaborators against all that is evil and irrational.
(Rational thought arises from the cortex of the human brain, which is
superior to the brain of all in the animal kingdom).
Ahunavaiti, Yasna 32.4, we note that the combination of the Good Mind of
the Creator and the Rational Thought of humans are, together, able to
move more effectively on the path of the Ashavan.
distancing themselves from the Good Mind and from rational thinking
(bestowed on them by
Ahurā Mazdā) they have moved away from the
path of the Ashavan.”
in his creation, bestowed the special gift of rational Intellectual
thought (Khratu) only to humans, amongst all other living creatures,
so that they will become his co-workers in the ultimate annihilation of
all evil. This rational thiking is a direct human realization of
Ahurā Mazdā’s Cosmic Good Mind - the
divine Vōhu Mana. It needs to be gradually
cultivated from birth onwards through meaningful experience (Shyaōthnā
and Hu-Shyaōthnā), amicable speech (Hu-Vacha),
reflective discrimination of, discernment in and interaction with the
34.14 Zarathushtra talks of the precious reward of the rational thought
(KHRATĒUSH) we possess, which will lead us to an Illumined Mind if only
we, as earthly mortals, were to follow the inspiration of Ahurā Mazdā’s
divine attribute VŌHU MANA.
To help us
understand how our existence must be perceived positively, apprehended
with clear insight, experienced meaningfully and affirmed manifestly, he
goes further. He promulgates a view that our very personal feeling
of humane-ness (our humane nature) is an inborn Human Spirit - CHISTI,
one of the manifestations of which is human consciousness (a
human realization of Ahurā Mazdā’s Cosmic Spirit - the divine spirit
Spənishta Mainyu). It is an uninitiated feeling which, through its
own spontaneity, translates into human intention, the motivating,
driving force of all human conduct.
Yasna 43.2 Zarathushtra says that anyone seeking enlightenment “shall
attain it through thy wish and Divine Spirit, O Mazdā.”
interactions (precepts, thoughts and feelings) in our superior human
brain a constant striving is set in motion to promote an integration
of our Human Spirit, Chisti and our
human Rational Intellect, Khratu. Again, in
Yasna 34.14 he further explains the ideal of those who strive to promote
the integration of their human Spirit, Chisti with their earthly
Rationality, KHRATU - “they best serve humanity”
According to Zarathushtra there is no place at all for negative thought,
inactivity or non-involvement in Human Consciousness. Conscious
existence is, therefore, full of active intentions, which we can
exert on the Universe, helping to convert the quantum possibility into
actuality. His amazing vision offers something better for the future.
He will have it no other way, since he sees nothing illusory in life.
In Yasna 28.1 Zarathushtra pleads:
“Allow me to undergo meaningful interactions (Shyaōthnā) worthy of the
Ashavan that I may cultivate Rational Intellect (Khratum) with the Good
Mind (Vanghēush Mananghō).”
of some important of differences in the Vedas:
The extraordinarily indelible Greco-Roman pagan concept of the
power behind the Creation as ‘God’, ‘Gods’ and ‘Goddesses’
(further added to, from pagan Greek mythology) ultimately entered
the first Bible (written in Greek). During the two and half centuries
of European colonisation these words were imposed on the governed
subjects in the colonies and sadly became common parlance for the
Divinities of the Religions of the colonized lands These bizarre
terminologies have become so deeply embedded that it has become almost
impossible to eradicate them from usage in the common vocabulary both
among the Western scholars, who unwittingly imparted the words in to the
minds of their former ‘colonized subjects’ and the subjects themselves.
Here is a solemn example, which, I believe, is also a bold challenge to
those who have promoted polytheism in the Vedas: -
Vēda iii, 55.1:
samithē agnāb krutam ita vathēm I
mahat devānām assura tvam ēkam II
[“Before this burning Fire, I shall speak nothing but the truth
There is but only one ‘divinity’ in all the ‘gods’]
- Prisni-Gāthā (the Hymns of Rāmāchandra and
by Jōtindra Mōhan Chattōpādhyaya2.
[The second line, in my humble opinion, as Zarathushtra
would have wanted it, should have been translated thus: ‘There is but
only one Creator among all the divinities’]
Thanks to the insight of our forefathers and scholars, in the Religion
Mazdā has remained the Creator, the
Lord of Wisdom, thoroughly good and incorruptible and the ‘Yazatas’
(The ‘Angels’ of later Christianity and the ‘Pāris’
of Islam) and the 7 Amesha Spəntas (the 7 Archangels of later
Christianity) have remained the divinities, who with the
assistance of created humans will continue to counter vigorously
everything that is not good until ‘the end of time on Earth’.
Before the schism occurred, during the common Assuric/Ahuric times the
Vedic Aryanic and the Avestan Airyanic peoples as one had a common
Supreme Creator - Bhāgā. After their separation the Vedic people
called the Creator, Brahmā and the Gāthic/Avestan people,
In Ralph H. Griffith’s
4. translations below (with all due respect) I have let (the
incorrigible) words God, Gods and Goddesses stay (as is).
Kratu in the Vedic
The Vedic texts seem
to interpret Kratu as mental power (including will,
courage, determination……) as well as physical power.
The Ŗg Vēdā
interpret Kratu, in addition, as meditational powers. It
talks of kratu - right intention, ‘daksha’ as skill in
action, ‘medha’ as higher perception, ‘manisha’ as intuition and
‘chetana’ as consciousness. This division is
reflected in the Brahmanas as an adhy-ātmic or
question of Bráhman's relation to prayer and utterance concerns the
words for mental processes -cit, -man, -budh, and -dhii.
‘A Sanskrit-English Dictionary’7.
gives the meaning of Kratu: plan, design, intention,
resolution, determination, purpose, desire, will; Kratva:
willingly, readily; ekena kratuna: power, ability; RV:
deliberation, consultation; intelligence, good understanding;
bhadra kratu: intelligence, understanding, right judgment,
Kratu is also
intelligence personified (see below) as son of Brahma, one of
the Prajapatis, or the highly-blessed
principal Rishis. Kratu is also the names of several persons
quoted in the Rig Veda and other Vedic texts and, surprisingly, it also
means ‘animal sacrifice’ during Yajna.
Ralph T H Griffith
4. in the English translation of his ‘The Hymns of the Ŗg
Vēdā has translated ‘Kratu’ as mental power
and sometimes even as physical power/strength/vigour
and even as sacrifice (animal sacrifice as well as in
the sense of a personal surrender/devotion).
Vāman Sivrām Āptē
1. in his ‘The Student’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary’ pg. 166
gives the meaning as intelligence, talent, power, ability.
Gardner, John Robert in his website Vedavid
‘There are innumerable words common to the Vedas and the Upanishads that
convey implications of such recondite profound ideas: satyam
(Truth), ŗtam (Right), amŗtam (Immortality), bŗhat
(Vastness), dhi (Knowledge) and jyoti (Light).’
Kratu as names of
persons in the Vēdic texts:
‘...Sumati, the wife of Kratu, gave birth to Balakhilyas (Valikhilyas).’
the seven Rishis often mentioned in the Brāhmanas
and later works as typical representatives of rational spiritual
thinkers and ratus - Marici , Atri , Angiras , Pulaha , Kratu ,
Pulastya , Vasishtha and are also given as the sons of Brahma.
In the Mahābhārata
there was at first
one Eternal, Divine, and Self-born Brahma. The self-born Brahma begat
seven illustrious sons. They were Marichi, Atri, Angiras, Pulastya,
Pulaha, Kratu, and the highly-blessed Vasishtha who was equal to
the Self-born himself. These seven sons have also been mentioned in the
as seven Brāhmanas.
...Sumati, the wife of Kratu, gave birth to Balakhilyas (Valikhilyas).
Rishis are often mentioned in the Brāhmanas and
later works as typical representatives of ... as: Marici, Atri, Angiras,
Pulaha, Kratu, Pulastya, Vasishtha are given as the ...
The Ŗg Vēda
mentions other meditational powers as ‘kratu’ or right intention,
‘daksha’ or skill in action, ‘medha’ or higher perception, ‘manisha’ or
intuition, and ‘chetana’ or consciousness.
division is reflected again in the Brāhmanas as an
adhy-ātmic or inner/spiritual knowledge and and mentions other
meditational powers as kratu' or right intention, daksha' or
innumerable words common to the Vedas and the Upanishads that convey
implications of such recondite profound ideas: satyam (Truth),
rtam (Right), amrtam (Immortality), brhat (Vastness),
dhi (Knowledge) and jyoti (Light).
derivatives as ‘Mental power’ In the Ŗg Vedā:
i,77.3: Agni- For he is mental power, a man and perfect; he is the bringer, friend-like of the wondrous.
i,91.5: Soma- Thou art the Lord of heroes, King, yea Vrtra slayer thou; thou art auspicious slayer.
i,127.9: Agni- Most mighty is thy ecstasy; most splendid is thy mental power.
i,175.5: Indra- Most mighty is thy rapturous joy; most splendid is thy active power……
Mitra and Varuna,
through Law, lovers and cherishers of Law, have yea obtained your
mortal man, no God exceeds thy mental power, O mighty
Agni- All men are joyful in thy power, O god, that living from
the dry wood thou art born…..
him the deities have stored manliness, insight, power and might,
lauding his own imperial way.
Give mental power to him who sings the sacred songs
and hearken strong ones to the master of the house.
Vishnu- He hath power supreme and might that finds the day
and with his friend unbars the stable of the kine.
Indra- Without whom none exists, Indra the lofty one; in whom alone all
powers heroic are combined.i
Indra- For all men bring their will to him the Resolute, to him the holy
one, to him the strong one they cleave.
Rudra- The strong, begirt by Maruts, hath refreshed me
with most invigorating food, imploring.
Agni- Spreading with radiant limbs throughout the region, purging his
power with wise purifications…..
Indra- Victor in fight, swift mover like a awhorse, pervading
both worlds rainer down of blessings……
honoring this our sacrifice, O Indra, shall give us strength and
fill us full of courage.
Dadhikrāvan-………..Drawing himself together, as his strength
allows, Didhikrās springs along the windings of the paths.
……….Varuna’s will the God’s obey and follow. I am King of men’s
most lofty cover.
brought his wheel and firmly stayed it, setting it eastward he shall
give us courage.
Varuna: In the
tree-tops the air he hath extended, put milk in kine and vigorous speed
in horses, Set intellect in hearts, fire in the waters, Surya in
heaven and Soma on the mountain.
let the cheering drops delight thee greatly, great, perfect,
strong, powerful, all-suduing.
Indra- Drink thou of this whereof at birth, O Indra, thou drankest,
Mighty One for power & rapture…
Agni- Shine this
felicity on us, O Agni,: may we attain to perfect understanding…………..
Agni- In thee, O
bright as Mitra, Vasus seated the might of Asuras, for they loved thy
Vasus were contented with his wisdom, so the Gods made him their
Indra- O Indra give us wisdom as a sire gives wisdom to his
And, wakening, moreover, thoughtful insight, lead it by easy paths o’er
grief and trouble.
They reinforced the power and strength of Trita as he fought and
helped Indra in battle with the foe.
Aświns- The pious germ of sacrifice (personal surrender) purifies
Indra- ….when the Soma Juice flows………he gains the power that brings
success, for great is he.
Indra- That lofty Indra-power of thine, thy strength and thy
himself hath said: the mind of woman brooks not discipline. Her
intellect hath little weight.
Varuna- Sharpen this song of him who strives his utmost; shrpen God
Varuna his strength and insight………..
viii, 62.7: Aświns-
For Atri ye, O Aświns, made a dwelling place to shield him well. Let
your protecting help be near.
Soma- Send us a good mind, send energy and mental power……….let
men joy in thy love, sweet juice……
Soma- ….That we
may live, grant ……full powers of mind, like beakers
Surya, we address our prayers to thee today, may the Gods favour this,
our purpose and desire
Indra- For me
hath Tvastar forged the iron thunderbolt: in me the Gods have centred
shinest out from beauty fair to look upon; thou leadest us to
Plans thou fullfillest, gatherest thoughts for sacrifice (personal
Thou seekest, as it were, thy own stations with swift descent of
powers. I share thee even with the Sun
Agni- Most sage
with insight, passing skillfully with thy powers art thou, Agn,
wise with wisdom, knowing all.
our effectual laud, addressed with homage, touched you, O Indra-Varuna,
Indra- ….for our
assistance bring that most effectual power of thine, which
conquers men fro usand wins the spoils, invincible in fight.
Varuna- O thou
bright and powerful God, through want of strength I erred and
shaft sent for glory from the quiver……..
“……They by their mental powers were made immortal,
Vaiśvānara,when thou shonest from thy parents.”
“Exerting all our strength with thoughts of power we glorify in
limit of whose power not Gods by Godhead (nor mortal men) have
reached, nor yet the Waters. Both earth and Heaven in vigour he
Mighty sang with lofty ones: ….. fashioned with his strength, like
skillful Matarisvan with his power……………”
Kratu (and its
derivatives Kartvō and Kratva) in Ŗg Vedā
sapient-minded Priest, truthful, most graciously great, the God,
come hither with the Gods.
with pure mental power, pure as director, was he born……
Indra- He, who,
just-born chief of God of lofty spirit by power and might became
the Gods’ protector…………….
Indra- All banks
of rivers yielded to his manly might……………
ii, 16.2: Indra- Without whom naught exists, Indra the Lofty One;
in whom alone all powers heroic are combined…….
Indra- For all
men bring their will to him the Resolute, to him the holy One, to him
the strong they cleave……
ii, 16.8: Indra- ……Lord of a Hundred Powers, may we once
firmly cling to thy fair favours even as husbands to their wives.
ii, 22.4: Indra- All that is godless may he conquer with his might,
and Lord of Hundred Powers, find for us strength and food.
…that son of Law which is with might refulgent – that treasure
wonderful , bestow thou on us.
ii, 27.2: Adityas- With one accord (ie in strength)
may Aryaman, Mitra, and Varuna this day accept ths praise- song.
ii, 30.6: Viśvadevas- Whom so ye love, his power ye aid
and strengthen ……..
ii, 31.3a: Viśvadevas- …may our Indra here, the friend of all
mankind, coming from heaven, most wise, girt by the Marut host,
accompany with aid untroubled……….
ii, 12.1: Indra- He who just-born chief God of lofty
spirit by power and might became the Gods’ protector………………
iii, 2.3: Agni- Within the range of their surpassing power,
by might, the Gods created Agni with inventive thought………
iii, 14.7: Agni- Whatever God in sacrifice we mortals have
wrought is all for thee, strong, wise of purpose…….
iii, 37.2: Indra- O Indra, Lord of Hundred Powers, may
those who praise thee hitherward direct thy spirit and thy eye.
blazing Agni, who hath worked up mischief, consume thou utterly
like dried up stubble
Agni- So may our
song that purifies through wisdom (ie mental power) reach in a
moment him the universal…….
Indra- That gift
or ours, which Indra loves and welcomes, even that he makes for us, the
great and strong one
Indra- Strong Godthe fold at need put forth their vigour,
striving together in the whirl of battle.
So, in their work the Gods had satisfaction pondering it with thought
and mental insight.
Ŗbhus- May the
abundant juices bear you onward to power and strength, and, when
imbibed, delight you.
Drawing himself together, as his strength allows, Dadhikrās springs
along the windings of the path.
v, 31.11: Indra- …Etaśa brings his wheel and firmly stays it,
setting it eastward he shall give us courage.
Indra- Though he
might never be wounded still his vitals felt that, the God’s bolt, which
his powers supported……
wise is he who hath discerned: let him speak to us of the Gods……
(from of old) hast dwelt among these people, by mental power the
charioteer of blessings………..
Indra- Thou with
thy wisdom, power and works of wonder, hast stored the ripe milk
in the cow’s udders………..
men who sit at meat the mountains settled. By thee Most Wise the
regions were made steadfast.
vi, 36.2: Indra- ….for the rein-seizing, the inpesrtuous Charger
they furnished power even for Vŗtra’s slaughter
vi, 68.9: Indra-Varuna….who mighty Governor, Eternal, as with flame,
illumines both wide worlds with majesty and power.
vii, 2.2: Āprīs ….to these, the pure, most wise, thought
inspirers, Gods who enjoy both sorts of our oblations.
Agni- Shine this
felicity on us, O Agni: may we attain to perfect understanding.
vii, 9.2: Agni- Most Wise is he who, forcing doors of Panis,
brought the bright Sun to uswho feedeth many.
vii, 11.4: Agni-The Vasus were contented with his wisdom so
the Gods made him their oblation.
vii, 27.2: Indra- Thou, Maghavan, hast rent strong places
open: unclose for us, Wise God, thy hidden bounty.
…..And, awakening, moreover, thoughtful insight, lead it by easy
paths o’er grief and trouble.
vii, 61.2: : Mitra-Varuna- He whose devotions, sapient Gods, ye
favour so that ye fill, as ‘twere, with power his autumns.
vii, 85.4: Indra-Varuna- Wise be the priest and skilled in
Law Eternal, who with his sacred gifts and adoration brings…….
vii, 90.5: Vāyu- These with their thruthful spirit, shining
brightly, move on provided with their natural insight.
Indra- Splendid art thou, O Indra, wise, enbending: strengthen us
with might O Lord of Power.
i, 66.3: Agni- With flame insatiate, like eternal might;
caring for each one like a dame at home…..
i, 73.2: Agni- He who like Savitar the God, true-minded,
protecteth with his power all acts of vigour……
1.82.5: Indra- Let, Lord of Hundred Powers, thy steeds be
harnessed on the right and left.
That Agni, wise high priest, in every house takes thought for sacrifice
and holy service, yea, takes thought, with mental power, for
sacrifice. Disposer, he with mental power, shows all things unto him
i, 132.5: Indra- When with wise plan the Hero leads the
people forth, they conquer in the ordered battle…….
i, 138.3: Pūşan- Thou, Pūşan, in whose friendship they who sing
forth praise enjoy advantage, even in wisdom……
i, 141.6: Agni- ….when, much praised, by the power and will
of Gods, he goes at all times to his mortal worshipper to drink.
that directs both worlds as they were guiding reins, and, very wise (sukratuh),
the Gods’ assent in sacrifice.
i, 143.2: Agni- When he was kindled, through power and majesty
his fiery splendour made the heavens and earth to shine.
i, 144.7: Agni- Agni, accept with joy, be glad in this our prayer,
joy-giver, self-sustained, strong, born of Holy Law.
i, 145.2: Agni- Forgetting not the former nor the later word, he
goethon, not careless, in his mental power.
mental power to him who sings the sacred song, and hearken,
strong ones to the master of the house.
Earth- Prolific parents, they have made the world of life, and for their
brood all round wide immortality.
The Soma is within him, in his frame vast strength, the thunder in his
hand and wisdom in his head.
Let him be even that God who, for the earliest drought measuring out his
power, increased his majesty.
Indra- Though didst perform thy first great deed of hero might, what
showdest power, through prayer, before this folk.
Various Gods: This is the srengthener of thy body’s manly
strength, victory fotr all time
are placed within thine arms.
He whose devotions, sapient Gods, ye favour so that ye fill, as ‘twere,
with power his autumns.
Bŗhaspati: That Brahmanspati, most high and gracious, I glorify
with offerings and with homage.
Agni- O Agni, most
devout are they, the sages who have set thee, Sage, exceeding wise
viii, 33.17: Indra- Indra himself
hath said, “The mind of woman brooks not discipline; yet her
intellect hath immense weight (su-kratuh)”.
this song of him who strives his utmost, sharpen, God Varuna, his
strength and insight.
Indra- Borne on
firm chariot with the prosperous Nahuşa, wise, to a man yet more
ix, 16.4: Soma Pavamāna- Moved by the purifiers thought the Soma
flows into the sieve. By wisdom it hath gained its home.
Who for ourselves, O thou Most Wise, is wealth and fair
intelligence, the Guardian, the desire of all.
Over the earthly region flow thou on thy way, helping the praiser
and the pourer, thou Most Wise, let us not lack rich treasure……..
ix, 102.8: With wisdom and with radiant eyes unbar to us the
stall of heaven, seeding at solemn rite……..
his wise insight Trita in the cavern, seeking as ever the chief
Indra- We laud
and praise his several deeds of valour who, fatherlike, with power
hath made us stronger……
x, 25.1: Soma- Send us a good and happy mind, send energy and
Indra, Vasukra- Yea,
and the Gods have known me also, Indra, as mighty, fierce and
strong in every exploit…….
x, 31.2: Viśvedevas- Counsel himself with his own mental insight,
and grasp still nobler vigour with his spirit.
x, 36.10: Viśvedevas- Hear us, O ye who claim the worship of
mankind, and give us, O ye Gods, the fift for which we pray,
victorious wisdom, fame with heroes and with wealth.
x, 49.9: Indra- I, gifted with great wisdom, spread the
floods abroad; by war I found for man the way to high success
x, 57.4: Viśvedevas- Thy spirit come to thee again for wisdom,
energy and life that thou may long behold the sun.
welcome speaker in the storm of the battle uttered with might
this prayer to win the Aswins………
will and thoughts within my breast exert their power; they yearn
with love and fly
to all the regions
Manyu- I have
departed still without a portion, wise God according to thy will,
Manyu- Twin born
with power, destructive bolt of thunder, the highest conquering
might is thine, Subduer.
Wondrous thy spirit-filling light, triumphant, thy hosts save
from decay and are restless.
x, 144.6: Indra- Wisdom, Most Sapient One, bring force that
Agni- O Agni, graciously accept this song of mine, thou passing wise
who knowest every ordinance……
holy prayers, Indra, have I sung thee. Grant to the man the strength
of man, thou Hero……..
Āptē, Vāman ShivrāmThe
Student’s Sanskrit-English Dictionary, pg. 166, Motilal Banarsidass,
Delhi, 1979. He has translated ‘Kratu’ as mental power, intelligence,
talent, ability and sometimes even as physical power /strength /vigour
Chattōpādhyaya, Jōtindra Mōhan, Prisni-Gāthā
Hymns of Ramachandra and Zarathushtra), Anand Sagar Press, Navsari, 1937
Gardner, John Robert
- his excellent Vedic Research website, ‘Vedavid’
Griffiths, Ralph T. H.,
Translation, The Hymns of the ŖGVEDA, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 1986.
Kanga, Kavasji Edulji, Khordeh Avesta (original in Gujarati 1880),
reprint Nirnaya Sagar Press, Bombay, 1926
ni sampurna farhang’
(A Dictionary of Avesta, Gujarāti and English languages), Education
Society’s Steam Press, Bombay, 1900.
A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Motilal Banarsidass, pg. 319, Delhi, 1988
gives the meaning of
Kratu: plan, design, intention, resolution, determination,
purpose, desire will; Kratva: willingly, readily;
power, ability; RV: deliberation, consultation; intelligence, good
understanding,; bhadra kratu: intelligence,
understanding, right judgement, inspiration, enlightenment. Kratu as
intelligence personified (as the son of Brahma, one of the Prajāpatis,
or the principal Rishis). Kratu is also the names of several persons
quoted in the RĢ Veda and, surprisingly, it also means ‘animal
sacrifice’ during Yajna.
Tārāporewālā, Irach J. S.,
Zarathushtra nā Gāthā’
Gāthās of Zarathushtra, Avesta Text in Gujerati and English, Trend
Printers, Bombay-4, 1962. This rare edition in Gujarāti, meant to be of
assistance in the pronunciation of the Gāthic words and to augment a
better comparative understanding of the explanations, is complementary
to the First Edition (published in the Roman script in 1951). In this
respect this Edition certainly succeeds. Each verse in the
Gujarati script with the translation in Gujarati is printed on the left
page of the book and the same verse in the Roman script and its
translation in English on the page opposite.
Tārāporewālā, Irach J. S.,
(Reprint of the First Edition of 1951) The Divine Songs of Zarathushtra,
Hukhta Foundation, Bombay, 1993.
[My main source for
comparative studies in conjunction with the Vēdic and Sanskrit Texts has
always remained these two outstanding books of Irach J. S. Taraporewala.
There are several instances in his book that this great Sanskrit/Gāthic/Avestan
scholar has referred to certain observations in passing, during
comparative studies. I have, at places, merely tried to dwell a little
further into such passing comments]